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2. Problems in Classical Physics

## Contents Note �� 2.1. Problems with Electric Field E �� 2.2. The Creation of Magnetic Field B �� �� 2.4. Overall Review of Electromagnetism and Electrodynamics �� 2.5. The Origin of Electromagnetic Wave  �� �� 2.8. Other Related Problems

### Note:

���� In classical physics, the E was correctly defined as an electric force field but misunderstood as an electric field. As an electric force field, the E is not an entity. As an electric field to be the part of light, the E must be an entity to match the concept of photon. This mistake causes countless problems. Similarly, the correctly defined magnetic force field B faces the same problems.

### 2.1. Problems with Electric Field E

���� The definition of electric field E in classical physics is based on the electric force of a charged particle, it represents an electric force field of the charge. It should also have the same entity feature as a photon does since this electric field E is believed to be the building material of light.

���� As a vector, electric field E can be expressed as

������ E=E1+E2+E3+�+En=∑En��������� (2.1.1)

���� Firstly, let�s consider the situation in figure (2.1.1).

������ ���� For the charge Q, from three different arbitrary points a, b and c, we get three different electric fields Ea, Eb and Ec respectively. If point c approaches infinity, we have Ec=0. From here we know that electric field E dose not satisfy the law of conservation of matter, so, it can never be an entity.

���� Secondly, let�s check the situation in figure (2.1.2). Here we have two equal charges Q1=Q2. Q1 is at point a, and Q2 is at point b. The test point c is in the middle.

�������� ���� At point c, electric field caused by Q1 is E1, and which caused by Q2 is E2. There is

������ E1=−E2������������������������������������� (2.1.2)

The resultant electric field is

������ E=E1+E2=0������������������������������ (2.1.3)

Equation (2.1.3) is against the law of conservation of energy. Therefore, electric field E can never be energy.

���� It is clear now that the electric field E is neither an entity nor energy. It can stay in light as electric force field of an entity source but can never become the basic building material. The basic building material of light is photon as proved in modern physics. This photon has to be introduced back to classical physics as entity electric field so that a perfect model of light can be achieved.

### 2.2. The Creation of Magnetic Field B

���� In classical physics, a current is the source of magnetic field B. This magnetic field B then can have magnetic field energy and can form part of an electromagnetic wave, so it must have the feature of energy and entity to match the concept of photon.

���� The problem here is that why does a moving charged particle can create magnetic field while a moving electric neutral object, which includes a lot of electrons, cannot create magnetic field?

���� In figure (2.2.1), there are two particles P1 and P2. Both of them have the same rest mass m but P1 is a charged particle while P2 is not.

������� ����

���� If the two particles are accelerated to the same speed v along X-axis, they need the same accelerating force. This accelerating force gives the uncharged particle P2 a kinetic energy E2 while gives the charged particle P1 a kinetic energy E1 plus an extra magnetic field B1. Since we have E1=E2, the extra magnetic field B1 of the charged particle can not be an entity or energy. Otherwise we are creating an entity or energy from nothing. This means that a magnetic field B can not be functioned as photon in a ray of light.

���� Now, let us take one step further by adding an external magnetic field to the above situation. Figure (2.2.2) shows that an external B pointing out of screen. Once the two particles moved into the field B, they will travel along different tracks.

��������� ���� If P1 has a positive charge, a magnetic force will make it move along the arched track in figure (2.2.2) while P2 moves along a straight line. The arched track of P1 is the result of magnetic forces interacting between its B1 and the external B. So, the B1 (or B) marked the presence of a magnetic force, it is not magnetic field at all. Similarly, the B in a ray of light is also marked the presence of a magnetic force. The source of this magnetic force can only be a photon for there is nothing else in the light.

���� As for a moving charged particle, the source of its magnetic force has to be the same material as a photon. We call it an entity magnetic field.

���� Since a moving electron has entity electric field and entity magnetic field in its structure, it carries electromagnetic wave around itself. In QED, the structural entity fields are called virtual photon. In modern physics, we use the principle of wave-particle duality to compensate the shortcoming of classical physics.

### 2.3. The Direction of Electric Field E in Light

���� As we discussed before, a ray of light consists of a series of electric and magnetic photons. An electric photon can be labeled with E. We have to recheck the meaning of E in light for it is no longer a vector electric field.

���� In both electromagnetism and electrodynamics, electric field E at a point is defined as the ratio between the force Fe on a test charge q0 (assumed positive) at that point and the magnitude of q0

������ ����������������(2.3.1)

According to this definition, the E represents electric force field. It should be named as electric action rather than electric field. It is suggested that the direction of E is in the same direction of Fe. So, we have to check the direction of Fe.

���� For two charges q1 and q2 with a distance r, the electric force on q2 due to q1 is F21. And it is defined as

��������� ��������������(2.3.2)

Here we know that the direction of F21 is originated from the direction of r21, which is vector distance of r. The direction of r21 is defined, by human, as from q1 pointing to q2 based on related mathematic rules.

���� Now, it is clear that the direction of E is only an artificial one. There is no reason why cannot we change the definition to be from q2 pointing to q1. The original purpose of the vector E is to simplify its mathematic calculation. It does not mean that the electric field has a real direction. We should never mix mathematic rules with physical reality.

����� Generally speaking, Human defines directions for our convenience. In some cases, defined directions do not necessarily to be perfect. For example, electric current is defined to be from the positive end to the negative end, but electrons are actually moving in the opposite direction in a circuit. Another example is that when we say stand up, we only mean that to put our feet on the ground and hold the body straight. We do not have to worry about that at the other side of the earth people stand up towards different directions due to the shape of the earth.

���� Back to the case of electric field E, if we define its direction according to the force of two charges F21, this direction can only be used for the similar situation. As for electromagnetic wave, there is no charge in it, so the direction of E cannot be directly used there.

���� When comparing the situation of electric charges with the situation of electromagnetic wave, we can find three major differences: (1) an electric charge has a speed limit c but an electromagnetic wave travels in a constant speed c; (2) the former has reference charges of q1 and q2, therefore has reference distance r while the later exists in the space by itself; (3) the direction of E is originally from a vector definition of distance r but there is no such a distance in a ray of light.

���� In fact, the vector sign of electric field E in a ray of light only means that the building material, photon, has electric property.

���� Similarly, the vector sign of magnetic field B in a ray of light means that the building material, photon, has magnetic property.

����

### 2.4. Overall Review of Electromagnetism and electrodynamics

���� In electromagnetism and electrodynamics, both E and B are defined as vectors. Later on, both of them become the building materials of light. If we believe that light is energy and entity as proved in modern physics, both E and B must have entity meanings to match the concept of photon. This means that both E and B have to obey conservation laws.

���� (1) Figure (2.4.1) shows that there is no electric field E inside a charged conductive object. This means that electric field cannot be energy or entity, for it does not obey conservation laws. Since this vector E is not an entity, it is not qualified to be the building material of light.

����������� ���� (2) Figure (2.4.2) shows a magnetic field B from left to right. A conductor is at rest in the field. When the conductor is pulled away by F2 along the direction of magnetic field, it gets a kinetic energy Ek. When the conductor is pulled by F1 with the same magnitude along the direction perpendicular to B, it gets the same kinetic energy Ek and an extra electric energy to form a current in the conductor. This is against the law of conservation of energy.

��������� ���� (3) In figure (2.4.3a), two same magnet bars are put next to each other with N pole against N pole. The magnetic field at the middle point a is: B=0.

���� In figure (2.4.3b), two parallel loops have opposite currents in each loop. At the middle point b, we also have: B=0.

���� In both cases, magnetic field B cannot be energy or entity, for they are against laws of conservation of energy and matter.

 �Figure (2.4.3b) At the middle b, B=0.

��������� ���� (4) Figure (2.4.4) shows the magnetic field B of a magnet. At point a, the field is Ba. At point b, the field is Bb and Bb<Ba. At point c→∞, the field is Bc=0. This is against conservation laws.

 �Figure (2.4.4) Magnetic field from a magnet.

��������� ���� Since this vector B is not an entity, it is not qualified to be the building material of light.

���� There is no qualified building material in classical physics for there is neither concept of entity field nor concept of quantum in classical physics. To understand light in classical physics, we have to introduce the concept of photon from modern physics back into classical physics. A photon with electric property is called entity electric field; a photon with magnetic property is called entity magnetic field. A ray of light is called entity field, it consists quantified entity electric field and entity magnetic field.

### 2.5. The Origin of Electromagnetic Wave

���� In electromagnetism and electrodynamics, electromagnetic wave is believed to be converted from other kinds of energy. There are different kinds of devices can realize this conversion and there are different explanations for different types of transmission.

���� Figure (2.5.1) shows the electromagnetic wave emitted from a pair of metal rods of an electrical oscillator.

�������� ���� It is believed that as the sinusoidal vibration of electric dipole, an electromagnetic wave is generated and transmitted in the way similar to water wave. This is a typical view of electromagnetic wave (including light) in classical physics.

���� Figure (2.5.2) is the emission of a filament. It produces light rays from the central point to all direction around it. In classical physics, this ray of light is formed by electric field E and magnetic field B as a transverse electromagnetic wave.

�������� ���� Figure (2.5.3) is the simplified principle of getting laser beam. Once an electron in its atom jumped from a higher energy lever L1 to a lower one L2, a laser beam is emitted. The electron then can be pumped to the higher lever again by an electric power supply and ready to jumping again. In this modern view of light, a ray of light is quantified into photons to match the energy differences of two different energy levels.

��������� ���� The above three figures give us three different images of electromagnetic wave: the wave, the ray and the particle. There is no doubt that modern physics gives us a better picture of light, classical physics has to be revised accordingly.

���� Since the basic building material of light is entity field�the different name of photon, this entity field can only come from an electron after it jumped from a higher energy level to a lower one. This means that there is an entity field in the structure of an electron along with its particle. This entity field is the virtual photon in QED, and it can be released as real photon to form quantified electromagnetic wave.

### 2.6. The Transmission of Electromagnetic Wave

���� The most commonly used model of electromagnetic wave in classical physics is shown in figure (2.6.1).

��������� ���� From the viewpoint of modern physics, this is a wrong image of light since it has no entity but electric field E and magnetic field B. The structure of a ray of light is suggested to be the combination of an electric field wave and magnetic field wave. These two continuous field waves are forbidden by the original Maxwell�s equations. This wrong image of light excludes particle from light. This is why we have to use wave-particle duality of light to introduce photon in modern physics.

���� Unfortunately, this wrong image of light is the foundation of wave optics and other electromagnetic wave theories, it creates all kinds of wrong ideas such as transverse wave, water like wave and polarization.

���� After using photon as building material, a ray of light is naturally quantified as electric and magnetic photons. It can be understood as photon carrying electromagnetic wave or wave-particle duality if you like. There is no such thing as transverse wave, water like wave and polarization of light any more.

### 2.7. Wave Optics

���� In modern physics such as QED, light is treated as photon in free space and as wave during interaction. This indicates that light is photon carrying electromagnetic wave. We have proved in section 1.2 that this is the only correct way to understand light. This is one reason why QED becomes physics for everything.

���� On the other hand, wave optics treats light as pure electromagnetic wave without entity building material. This pure wave of light is further described by the Huygens-Fresnel�s principle as a water wave.

���� Huygens-Fresnel�s principle includes two parts:

1.      Any point on a wave front can produce spherical secondary wavelets. (A laser beam can prove that this is wrong.)

2.      All secondary wavelets satisfy the principle of superposition. (This is true only if we suppose that there is no photon in the light, for there is no way to kill photons by superposition.)

���� Clearly, this principle assumes that light acts like water in a tank. This is why that almost all textbooks use a picture of water wave at the beginning of wave optics. In fact, anyone with little knowledge of light and water can identify the differences between the two: light travels with a constant speed c but water in a tank doesn�t go anywhere.

���� By using the entity field electromagnetic wave model in section 1.2, wave experiments of light can be better explained with the spirit of modern physics: (1) a beam of light can be split into sub-beams when an interaction occurs; (2) the superposition of sub-beams only affects the property wave of photons.

���� The following experiment is designed to prove that the slit in a single slit diffraction is the only reason for a laser beam to be split. The experimental set-up is shown in figure (2.7.1a).

�������� ���� The laser beam (1) can pass the hole in the frame holder (2) freely and then gets through the slit (3) to form a diffraction pattern on screen (7). Since the frame holder (2) is made of 10 mm strong phenolics board, and the slit formers (3) are made of metal pieces, only the bottom metal piece, witch is connected to the electromagnet (4), can be magnetized when the switch (5) is turned on.

���� The purpose of this experiment is to set up a magnetic force in the slit so that to check its effect on the diffraction pattern. If the laser beam can create wavelets by itself as Huygens-Fresnel�s principle predicted, the diffraction pattern shouldn�t have any change with or without the magnetic force. If the laser beam consists of electric and magnetic photons, a magnetic force in the slit can affect the sub-beams and consequently change the diffraction pattern.

���� Further more, we can use three different set of slits as shown in figure (2.7.1) to compare the results of different magnetic forces.

 �Figure (2.7.1d) Third set of slit formers.

��������� ���� If the switch is turned on, one side of the slit formers is magnetized to100 Tesla. The distance between slit and screen is 4 m. Any change to the diffraction pattern can be easily observed.

���� Figure (2.7.2) shows the diffraction fringes when the first set of slit formers is used.

��������� ����� There are two diffraction patterns (A) and (B) in it. Pattern (A) is the result when the switch is turned off. It is a normal diffraction pattern. When the switch is turned on, under the influence of magnetic field, the bright fringes are moved outwards symmetrical about the central point. As the result, the diffraction pattern changed to pattern (B) (exaggerated). The fringes closer to central position have smaller displacements while those far away have bigger displacements. For example, the tenth bright spots at both sides have a displacement of 0.5 mm.

���� As the switch is turned on and off continuously, diffraction pattern changes between (A) and (B) accordingly.

���� By using the second set of slit formers, we can get similar results as shown in figure (2.7.3).

��������� ���� When the switch is turned on, the diffraction fringes move outwards again. But this time, the displacements are bigger due to the more intensified magnetic force field in the slit. For example, the tenth bright spots at both sides have a displacement of 2 mm.

���� As the switch is turned on and off, the diffraction pattern changes between (A) and (B) (exaggerated) accordingly.

���� In figure (2.7.4), the third set of slit formers is used.

��������� ���� Once the switch is turned on, an asymmetric magnetic field is set up in the slit. The blade with an angle of 600 (connected with the electromagnet) has stronger magnetic force field. Accordingly, the fringes at this side have bigger displacements. For example, the twentieth bright spot is moved 0.5 mm. On the other hand, the blade with an angle of 1300 has weaker magnetic force field, it causes little change to the fringes. For instance, its twentieth bright spot is hardly moved when the switch is turned on.

���� There is no way to explain this experiment by using the Huygens-Fresnel�s principle.

���� An entity field optics based on quantified electromagnetic wave can be developed to replace wave optics.

### 2.8. Other Related Problems

���� Electrodynamics covers three areas: electromagnetic theory, electromagnetic wave theory and special relativity.

���� Due to the wrong definition of electron, electromagnetic theory has to be corrected according to the correct electron model. The basic structure of electromagnetic theory remains unchanged.

���� Due to the wrong image of electromagnetic wave, the electromagnetic wave theory has to be totally rebuilt according to the entity field model of electromagnetic wave.

���� There is nothing wrong with special relativity. Entity field theory provides direct links with this theory.

���� As a prediction of entity field physics, a photon can be split into elementary particles such as electron, proton and neutron. The whole universe is constructed by endless cycle of elementary particles�entity field�elementary particles, again and again.