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__1.1. The Gap between Classical Physics and Modern
Physics__

1.2. Three Fatal
Mistakes in Classical Physics

1.3. The Advantages of Entity Field Physics

Since we are discussing electric and
magnetic fields related theories, classical physics refers to electromagnetism,
wave optics, and electrodynamics (without special relativity); modern physics
refers to quantum-optics, quantum-mechanics, special relativity and QED.

Obviously, there is no direct link between
classical physics and modern physics. The existence of quantum-optics has
nothing to do with wave optics. The principle of wave-particle duality of light
has to be used to link wave optics with quantum-optics. Similarly, the
existence of quantum-mechanics depends on the principle of wave-particle
duality of particle; the existence of special relativity depends on the
principles of special relativity. None of the above principle can be traced
back to classical physics. An easy excuse to avoid these contradictions is to
believe that classical physics is an approximate theory of modern physics. By
doing so, we don’t have to solve the basic problems: how does a wave become a
particle? How does a particle become a wave? How does the light speed become
the up limit of any moving object?

Comparing classical physics with modern
physics one can find following differences: (1) Classical physics was developed
long before the existence of modern physics. (2) Classical physics did not take
quantum into consideration. (3) Classical physics did not take special
relativity into consideration. In one word: modern physics is a better theory
than classical physics. For this reason, if we try to merge classical physics
with modern physics so that to get ride of all the principles such as
wave-particle duality, the correct way is to use modern physics to modify
classical physics.

Classical physics is a correct theory from
the viewpoint of classical physics. On the other hand, it is an incorrect
theory from the viewpoint of modern physics. This is why wave-particle duality
of light and wave-particle duality of particle have to be used to link the two
contradictory theories. So do the principles of special relativity. Checking
classical physics with the concepts of quantum and special relativity we can
find many mistakes. In the next section, we well analyze three fatal mistakes.

The first fatal mistake is the way to get wave equations from Maxwell’s equations.

In vacuum, Maxwell’s equations states:

(1.2.1)

(1.2.2)

(1.2.3)

(1.2.4)

Keeping the concepts of quantum and special relativity in mend, we can find that the above equations have three basic requirements:

Requirement 1:
Equation (1.2.3) says that a time-varying **B**
becomes an **E**; equation (1.2.4) says
that a time-varying **E** becomes a **B**. Both **B** and **E** can only exist
by changing from one into the other. In a ray of light, both of them are
quantified one after the other and neither of them can form a complete wave by
itself.

Requirement 2:
The two symmetrical equations (1.2.3) and (1.2.4) indicate that either **B** or **E** takes an equal time to change from one to the other. This means
that each of them takes half of a period of an interchange cycle.

Requirement 3:
Since **B** and **E** are independent of any source, they are no longer vectors according
to their definitions. For the same reason, they have a constant moving speed c
according to special relativity. The reference system they attached on must
also have a constant moving speed c. This means that the natural reference
system of equations (1.2.1) to (1.2.4) is a light speed system. The wave
described by equation (1.2.3) and (1.2.4) is a wave on top of this light speed
reference system.

In summary, for a
ray of light, the **E** and the **B** are quantified one after the other
(requirement 1); half wavelength of **E**
and half wavelength of **B** form a
complete wavelength (requirement 2); the wave of **E** and **B** is on top of the
moving speed c (requirement 3). This is the only correct way of understanding
Maxwell’s equations. Any deduction from Maxwell’s equations must satisfy the
above three requirements.

Now let’s check
out how a wrong electromagnetic wave, which includes a continuous wave of **E **and a continuous wave of **B**, was deducted from the correct
Maxwell’s equations.

On eliminating **B** by combining equations (1.2.3) and
(1.2.4), after taking their curl, we can find (a vector equation is used as the
first part of the following equation)

(1.2.5)

In this correct mathematical step, we eliminated **B** by filling its space with **E**. This is to say that as the
disappearance of **B,** the amount of **E** is doubled so that it is no longer
quantified. By doing so, we created an incorrect physical result.

Considering equation (1.2.1), equation (1.2.5) becomes

(1.2.6)

This is a correct mathematical wave equation but an
incorrect physical equation for it indicates a continuous wave of **E**.

With similar
mathematical procedures, we can get a wave equation of **B** with the same wrong physical meaning

(1.2.7)

If we use both
equations (1.2.6) and (1.2.7) to represent a ray of light as we did in
classical physics, not only the amount of **E**
or **B** is doubled, but also a ray of
light must have a continuous wave of **E**
and a continuous wave of **B**. This
fatal mistake changed the quantified electromagnetic wave into two combined
electric wave (**E**) and magnetic wave
(**B**). These two combined waves are
then wrongly believed to be transverse waves obeying right hand rule. Since
this wrong electromagnetic wave model exclusive any photon in the light, the
principle of wave-particle duality of light has to be used as the foundation of
quantum-optics.

The way to
correct this fatal mistake is to unify equations (1.2.6) and (1.2.7) into one
equation so that **E** and **B** are reduced by half. This requires
that both **E** and **B** have to be unified as the property of an electromagnetic wave so
that a symbol P can be used to represent the two. At the positions the electromagnetic
wave has electric properties, there is a P=**E**.
At the positions the electromagnetic wave has magnetic properties, there is a
P=**B**. Thus, equations (1.2.6) and
(1.2.7) can be unified as a property wave equation

(1.2.8)

In which P=**E** when
P has positive value; P=**B** when P has
negative value. Obviously, equation (1.2.8) meets all the requirements of
Maxwell’s equations.

The simple harmonic wave solution of equation (1.2.8) is

(1.2.9)

It indicates that, in light speed reference system, a ray of light is a series of quantified particles carrying electromagnetic property wave.

Since the electromagnetic wave model in classical physics is based on the wrong wave equations of (1.2.6) and (1.2.7), we have to rebuild a correct model to replace it.

Photoelectric
experiments indicate that the smallest unit in light is a photon—a
particle-like entity material. This means that a ray of light is naturally quantified
into electric photons and magnetic photons. Although equation (1.2.9) asks for
quantified **E** and **B** to form a ray of light, but neither **E** nor **B** can become photon for they are not defined as entity. In fact,
there is no such thing as photon in classical physics for it’s a concept of
modern physics. This concept of photon has to be introduced back to classical
physics as the basic building material of light. Putting the two conditions
together we get: the basic building material of light is photon carrying
electric property **E** or magnetic
property **B**.

Since photon is the real entity material in a ray of light, it is called entity field. A photon with electric property is called an electric photon or an entity electric field; a photon with magnetic property is called a magnetic photon or an entity magnetic field.

Based on equation (1.2.9) and the concept of photon, in light speed reference system, the model of a ray of light is given in figure (1.2.1)

The term “independent entity field” in figure (1.2.1) means that the entity field here exists in the space by itself.

Comparing with the wrong electromagnetic wave model in classical physics, this new model of light has straight ray, particle and wave three characteristics in nature. All branches of optics and electromagnetic wave theories can be integrated into one theory without using any additional principle.

In ordinary
inertial reference system, with the help of Galilean transformation equations,
equation (1.2.9) becomes

(1.2.10)

Here the P_{E} represents a photon with electric
property and the P_{B} represents a photon with magnetic property. All
the photons have a constant speed c. This model is shown in figure (1.2.2)

Both figure
(1.2.1) and (1.2.2) are used to represent the same ray of light in different
reference systems. From figure (1.2.2) we can easily understand that a light
has three characteristics in nature: light is a straight ray due to its speed
c; light is an electromagnetic wave due to its property wave of **E** and **B**; light is a bunch of particles due to its quantified electric and
magnetic photons. Obviously, this model of light can be used to explain any
optical or electromagnetic wave experiment. Wave optics in classical physics is
a wrong theory based on a wrong model of electromagnetic wave.

Both figure
(1.2.1) and (1.2.2) shown that photons are the basic building material in a ray
of light, they act as the source of **E**
or **B**. Here comes a problem: If photon
is the source of **E** or **B** in light, why there is no similar
source in the definitions of **E** and **B** in classical physics? Besides, the
requirement of a virtual photon in an electron (QED) indicates that the pure
particle model of electron is incorrect.

Checking the
definitions of **E** and **B** in classical physics we know that
they are, in fact, electric force field and magnetic force field respectively.
They should not be named as electric and magnetic fields for there are real
electric and magnetic fields as the source of electric and magnetic phenomena.
Needless to say, in classical physics, electric phenomenon without its entity
sources is the second fatal mistake; magnetic phenomenon without its entity
source is the third fatal mistake.

Based on the requirement
of QED and the correct electromagnetic wave model, a concentrated,
particle-like virtual photon must exist in the structure of an electron, along
with its particle, as the source of electric phenomenon. Since this virtual
photon acts as the source of **E** in an
electron, it can be named as entity electric field. This is to say that a
stationary electron has an entity electric field and a particle in its
structure. This is shown in figure (1.2.3)

The particle part
of an electron is the source of gravitation due to its rest mass of m_{0}.
The entity electric field part of an electron is the source of an electric
force due to its electric charge of e. There is an electric force field around
any electron due to the electric force of its entity electric field. This
electric force field was correctly defined but wrongly named in classical
physics as electric field intensity **E**.
Since the so defined **E** reflects the
intensity of electric force field acting upon other electric charges, it should
be renamed as electric action intensity. Normally, we can simply call it
electric action **E**.

There are significant differences between an entity electric field and an electric force field: the former is a concentrated, particle like field carrying unit electric charge while the latter is an extended field to describe the distribution of an electric force; the former is a natural building material of an electron co-existing with its particle while the latter is a defined field to help us studying the electric force. Most of all, the former is the source of the latter.

After introducing the virtual photon as entity electric field into electron, we can easily find the source of a magnetic force.

There are two separated facts in classical physics: the first one says that a magnetic phenomenon is due to an electric current; the second one says that an electric current is the result of large number of electrons moving in one direction. Putting these two facts together will be: a basic magnetic phenomenon is the result of a moving electron. This means that there is a source of magnetic force in any moving electron. Comparing with electric force situation, if we name the source of a magnetic force as entity magnetic field, this field must in the structure of a moving electron. So, the model of a moving electron should like the one in figure (1.2.4).

Since any moving
electron has a magnetic force generated by its entity magnetic field, it has a
magnetic force field. To study this magnetic force field, the definition of **B** in classical physics is correct, but
again, it has a wrong name. According to the definition of **B**, it reflects the intensity of magnetic force field acting upon
other entity magnetic field; therefore we should rename it as magnetic action **B**.

In classical
physics, electromagnetism and electrodynamics are good theories of electric and
magnetic force fields, but both of them failed to identity the sources of the
two force fields. After electromagnetic wave was identified as light, the so
called electric field **E** and magnetic
field **B** were believed to be the
basic building material of light by mistake. As the result, both **E** and **B** have to be entity to match the concept of photons in light. That
is why there are so many contradictions in classic physics.

A theory including the concept of entity field is called entity field physics and is used to replace the incorrect contents of classical physics.

In entity field physics, an electron is no longer a pure particle. It has an entity electric field as a virtual photon along with its particle. This provides direct link with QED.

A moving electron has an entity electric field and an entity magnetic field along with its particle. It becomes a particle carrying electromagnetic wave due to the electric and magnetic force fields around it. This provides direct link with quantum-mechanics.

To move an electron, the accelerating energy is partially transformed as its entity magnetic field and partially transformed as its kinetic energy. This entity magnetic field provides direct link with special relativity.

If a moving electron is decelerated to a lower energy level, a portion of its entity magnetic field is released as an independent entity field to form a quantified electromagnetic wave.

A ray of light is a series of quantified electric and magnetic photons carrying electromagnetic wave. Entity field optics can be developed to replace the incorrect wave optics so that we can comprehend straight ray, particle and wave of light in a unified theory.

In fact, classical physics is a theory witch does not take entity field, quantum and special relativity into consideration; therefore it is a theory of right structure with too many wrong concepts. We will give more details in the next chapter.